MALARIA AND TYPHIOD

MALARIA

Everyone must have experienced at one time or the other malaria or  symptoms similar to those of malaria. Malaria is a common disease that affects everyone no matter where the person is found wether developed or developing countries but especially in developing countries, once a person is exposed to the micro organism responsible for malaria.

CAUSES OF MALARIA

Its caused by a micro organism known as PLASMODIUM which is of four types:

◈   Plasmodium falciparum

◈   Plasmodium vivax

◈   Plasmodium malarae

  Plasmodium knowesi

How does malaria get into the body?

When a female anopheles mosquito bites an individual suffering form malaria, then goes on to bite a healthy person, the mosquito now transfers the malaria causing organism into the body of the healthy person.

Organs that are mostly affected are; firstly the liver and it stays, multiply then moves into the red blood cells and destroys it. This is when the signs and symptoms such as; fever, chills, anaemia, bitter tongue, headache will be manifested by the individual. Malaria affects more than two billion people each year and is the leading cause of death among children and pregnant women, hence it deserves all the attention.

Confirmed Malaria case per 1,000 population

 

PREVENTION:

◈   Clear bushes around.

◈   Don’t allow water in waste cans for mosquitoes to bread.

◈   Pour oil in stagnant water to help reduce or kill mosquito eggs.

◈   Sleep under treated mosquito net.

◈   Use mosquito repellants or insecticides to reduce or kill mosquitoes.

◈   The use of malaria vaccines should as be taken for those in the developed countries as this is not know in developing countries like Africa.

◈   Pregnant women should endeavour to to take prophylaxis for malaria, as prescribed by your healthcare giver.

 

TREATMENT

Malaria treatment today is no longer with one drug but with Artemestnin combination therapy (ACT) as advised by your doctor. Malaria if not treated can cause anaemia ( reduced red blood cell), cerebral malaria ( this is when it affects the brain and this can lead to death).

 

TYPHIOD

This is a disease caused by SALMONELLA TYPHII, with its characteristics as constant fever, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, weakness and sometimes diarrhoea. This diseases has similar symptoms as malaria but in some ways different, the fever experienced by patients with typhoid is constant as there temperature remains high through out the day while that of malaria can reduce at some point to return after sometime (intermittent fever). Also the headaches experienced by patients with typhoid is usually severe.

How does a person get typhoid?

The micro organism Salmonella typhii through a route called oral feacal a that is when the particles of infected feacal matter (stool) gets back to a healthy individual through their mouth in anyway. When a person defecates the stool contains millions of typhi eggs, the stool of infected an infected person can be contacted when another shakes an unwashed hand after visiting the toilet and also uses the hand to eat without proper washing. It can also be through infected vegetables and fruits which happened to be in contact with the stool of an infected person. Houseflies can also aid the distribution by carrying infected feacal matter to an open food.

 In any of the above mentioned routes the micro organism gets into the stomach and intestine and attaches to the walls were it initiates the Gastro Intestinal Tact to cause typhoid fever. If not treated can cause the intestine to become swollen (inflamed) which is known Enteric Fever, this condition can cause death.

PREVENTION

◈   Wash hands properly before eating.

◈   All fruits and vegetables should be washed properly using clean water and salt.

◈   All consumable items should be properly covered.

◈   Drinking water must be clean, free from any form of organisms, this could be achieved through boiling and filtering.

◈   Good toilet hygiene.

◈   People in positions where they hand food should

 be properly treated and ensure that there are no unhealthy people around consumable substances.

TREATMENT

Treatment is by the use of antibiotics as advice by your healthcare giver and proper nutrition during the time of illness and after.

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